Formation of urine


Each kidney is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron includes a filter, called a glomerulus, and a “excretory” tubule, where “final urine” is concentrated and form.

The nephrons work through a two-step process: the glomerulus filters the blood, and the tubule returns needed substances to the blood.

The nephron performs the basic function of the kidney, that is, filtering the blood and forming urine.


Filtration of blood plasma takes place in the renal glomerulus, forming primary urine. The composition of primary urine is the same as that of blood plasma, except for most of the proteins and macromolecules in the blood, which do not pass the glomerular filter.

Every day, all the blood in our body (between five and six liters) goes through the kidneys about 300 times. Our kidneys filter about 1,700 liters of blood every day, forming 170 liters of “primary urine” (glomerular filtrate). Primary urine goes through a further process of filtration and fluid concentration giving rise to 2 liters of urine, “final urine” which is excreted through the urethra.

Primary urine, free of proteins and macromolecules, is the result of the ultra-filtration of blood plasma. Similarly, the “final urine” can be considered as an ulterior and second ultra-filtration of blood plasma.

Once formed, primary urine circulates along the collecting or excretory urine tubules. In the highly vascular tubules (the tubules are connected with the blood circulation) of the nephrons, a process of reabsorption or return to the blood of 99% of the water and most of the filtered components that are dissolved in the primary urine takes place.

Later, a secretion takes place in the opposite direction, from the blood to the primary urine in the tubules. Substances that did not pass the glomerular filtrate, such as toxic substances, organic acids, and most of the urea, are “excreted” into the tubules from the blood.

Primary urine gets concentrated and is finally formed in the excretory tubules.

We propose to call this urine, as is formed and leaves the tubules, as “secondary urine”, not yet full urine, to distinguish it from the truly “final urine”, that is, from the urine that is finally excreted outside through the urethra.

This name change can be justified since urine undergoes a profound transformation in its composition and qualities after leaving the tubules and while going through the ureters, bladder and urethra .

The change of name from “final urine” to “secondary urine” is not simply a terminological change, but rather represents a proposal for a conceptual change with therapeutic consequences, as we will see in the section “Mode of action of Urine Therapy or Urine Fast”.

We can advance the following: the changes that occur in the composition of urine as it goes through the ureters, bladder and urethra mean that the urine that is finally excreted through the urethra will be quite different from the one leaving the tubules. Final urine, urine as excreted through the urethra , among other novel substances will contain exfoliated cells of the epithelia (urothelia) of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra and prostate ( in males).

The basal layer of these epithelia, particularly that of the bladder, will also provide stem cells. In fact, urine is at present the main source for obtaining stem cells, in a non invasive for therapeutic purposes.

Also, urine, due to time spent stored in the bladder, can be affected by both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. On the one hand, urine first comes into contact with the non-pathogenic bacteria of the bladder microbiota.

On the other hand, certain pathogenic bacteria, such as those that can be found in the rectum (being very close to the urethra), such as Escherichia coli, constantly try to invade the urinary system, and therefore our body, through the urethra.

The urothelium of the bladder constitutes a formidable barrier against infection. The protection afforded by the bladder epithelium in its fight against infection, gives rise to the formation of antibodies, antigens and other immune responses in the urine.

About all of these transformations that occur in urine since leaving the excretory tubules, and going through the ureters, bladder and urethra, the rest of the body does not have any contact, “news” or information.

Urine therapy, by incorporating urine into our organism, will result in our body having a whole new arsenal of healing possibilities and novel substances at our disposal.

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